Volume 1- Perceived effort

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The first e-book in the series: The Brain Effort Training


Understand what limits endurance performance is not just an academic exercise. It also affects the way endurance athletes are tested, the way they train, and how they prepare for competitions.


For the first 100 years in the history of exercise physiology, endurance was thought to be limited by muscle fatigue. And its caused by energy depletion or inadequate oxygen delivery and consequent acidification of the locomotor muscles.

As a result, endurance athletes wear heart rate monitors during training and tons of pasta and rice have been consumed before competitions.

These are only some examples of how exercise physiology has had an impact on the lives of endurance athletes.


Then, in the late 1990s, Professor Tim Noakes came up with the Central Governor Model (CGM).

This model proposes that endurance performance is limited by a subconscious intelligent system in the brain (the central governor). This system regulates locomotor muscle recruitment so that the speed/ power output sustained over a race never exceeds the capacity of the body to cope with the stress of endurance exercise.

The hypothesis is that if this safety system didn’t exist, a highly motivated endurance athlete might exercise beyond his/ her physiological capacity.

The CGM convinced many exercise physiologists that the organ that limits endurance performance is the brain, not the cardiovascular system (Marcola, S).


This e-book will offer  a sequence of extremely practical lessons in which our commandos methodology constantly applies to our athletes.


This is a preface written by Professor Samuele Marcora for Matt Fitzgerald’s book, “How Bad Do You Want It”. A concept already known mainly by the great elite endurance athletes. And because of this beautiful publication, we managed to extract this magnificent concept “Mind over Muscle”.